CSS filter effects are a way to processing an element's rendering before it is displayed in the document. This filter originally designed for use in SVG, but now, you can use it in CSS too. You can apply blurring, changing color intensity before it's displayed.
If you want to know more on how to create your very own filter effect, check out CSSTrick Filter article. It will walk through each filter and its usage.
However, if you want to use a set of predefined CSS filters, here we have 5 CSS libraries with many presets. Usually you just need to apply a specific class name to your image and it will work like magic - transform your image with the filter effect.
A tiny library for creating Instagram filters with CSS filters and blend modes.
Inspired by VSCO and CSS Gram, if you're a fan VSCO, these filter effects should look pretty similar to those.
Inspired by Spotify 2015 Ads, this libary apply DuoTone effect to your images. Unfortunately, it won't work with IE.
Another filter library with addtional effect such as glossy, grid, stripes.